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Colombia - Wikipedia. Coordinates: 4. English is also official in the archipelago of San Andr. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples, with as most advanced the Muisca, Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish set foot on Colombian soil for the first time in 1. New Kingdom of Granada, with as capital Santaf.
Independence from Spain was acquired in 1. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1. United States of Colombia (1.
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Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1. Panama seceded in 1. Since the 1. 96. 0s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low- intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1. The urban centres are mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, it is one of the world's 1. It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1. Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern- day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil). New Granada officially changed its name in 1.
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Granadine Confederation. In 1. 86. 3 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1. The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 1. Bogot. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period (~8. BCE) have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was also early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca.
The oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5. BCE. Nomadic hunter- gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibit. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques. The Muisca inhabited mainly the area of what is now the Departments of Boyac. They farmed maize, potato, quinoa and cotton, and traded gold, emeralds, blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and especially rock salt with neighboring nations.
The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. In August 1. 53. 8, he founded provisionally its capital near the Muisca cacicazgo of Bacat. The name soon acquired a suffix and was called Santa Fe de Bogot. Indigenous allies were crucial to conquest, as well as to creating and maintaining empire. Spain was the only European power that could not establish factories in Africa to purchase slaves and therefore the Spanish empire relied on the asiento system, awarding merchants (mostly from Portugal, France, England and the Dutch Empire) the license to trade enslaved people to their overseas territories.
The Viceroyalty had Santa F. This Viceroyalty included some other provinces of northwestern South America which had previously been under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond mainly to today's Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. Started in 1. 78. Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada which classified plants, wildlife and founded the first astronomical observatory in the city of Santa Fe de Bogot. In addition, historical figures in the process of independence in New Granada emerged from the expedition as the astronomer Francisco Jos. The last one that sought outright independence from Spain sprang up around 1. St. Domingue (present- day Haiti) in 1.
Sim. Francisco de Paula Santander also would play a decisive role. The viceroyalty was restored under the command of Juan S.
After a two- year civil war in 1. Its cause was mainly mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which subsequently ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eli. It was the only Latin American country to join the war in a direct military role as an ally of the United States. Particularly important was the resistance of the Colombian troops at Old Baldy.
Under the deal, the presidency would alternate between conservatives and liberals every 4 years for 1. This was part of the U. S. The changes generated by the new constitution are viewed as positive by Colombian society. Beyond the Colombian Massif (in the south- western departments of Cauca and Nari. At 2,6. 00 m (8,5. Bogot. Together these lowlands comprise over half Colombia's territory, but they contain less than 6% of the population.
To the north the Caribbean coast, home to 2. Barranquilla and Cartagena, generally consists of low- lying plains, but it also contains the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, which includes the country's tallest peaks (Pico Crist. By contrast the narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serran. The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura. Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin. The Orinoco and Amazon Rivers mark limits with Colombia to Venezuela and Peru respectively.
Below 1,0. 00 meters (3,2. About 8. 2. 5% of the country's total area lies in the warm altitudinal zone. The temperate climate altitudinal zone located between 1,0. The cold climate is present between 2,0.
Beyond the cold land lie the alpine conditions of the forested zone and then the treeless grasslands of the p. Above 4,0. 00 meters (1. About 1. 0% of the species of the Earth live in Colombia, including over 1,9. Europe and North America combined, Colombia has 1. Colombia is the country with more endemic species of butterflies, number 1 in terms of orchid species and approximately 7,0. Colombia is second in the number of amphibian species and is the third most diverse country in reptiles and palms.
There are about 1,9. In Colombia there are 3. The president is elected by popular vote to serve four- year term (In 2. Colombia’s Congress approved the repeal of a 2. A second round was required since no candidate received over the 5. His term as Colombia's president runs for four years beginning 7 August 2. The Ministry of Defence exercises day- to- day control of the military and the Colombian National Police.
Colombia has 4. 55,4. Colombia's armed forces are the largest in Latin America, and it is the second largest spender on its military after Brazil. The National Police functions as a gendarmerie, operating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country. Each of these operates with their own intelligence apparatus separate from the National Intelligence Directorate (DNI, in Spanish). Departments are subdivided into municipalities, each of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in turn subdivided into corregimientos in rural areas and into comunas in urban areas.
Each department has a local government with a governor and assembly directly elected to four- year terms, and each municipality is headed by a mayor and council. There is a popularly elected local administrative board in each of the corregimientos or comunas. These are Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta and Buenaventura. Some departments have local administrative subdivisions, where towns have a large concentration of population and municipalities are near each other (for example in Antioquia and Cundinamarca). Where departments have a low population (for example Amazonas, Vaup. Consumption expenditure by households is the largest component of GDP.
The country suffered a recession in 1. Great Depression), and the recovery from that recession was long and painful. However, in recent years growth has been impressive, reaching 6. Latin America. Public debt equals 4. A strong fiscal climate was reaffirmed by a boost in bond ratings. Yo. Y in 2. 01. 5).
Tourism generated 5. Co- working spaces have arisen to serve as communities for startups large and small. Also invented in Colombia were the microkeratome and keratomileusis technique, which form the fundamental basis of what now is known as LASIK (one of the most important techniques for the correction of refractive errors of vision) and the Hakim valve for the treatment of Hydrocephalus, among others. Tohme, researcher recognized for his work on the genetic diversity of food, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo who is known for his groundbreaking work on synthetic vaccines for malaria, Francisco Lopera who discovered the . A toll road concession programme will comprise 4. Magdalena river navigable again; improving port facilities; as well as an expansion of Bogot. The population growth rate for 2.
The proportion of older persons in the total population has begun to increase substantially. The nine eastern lowland departments, comprising about 5. Colombia's area, have less than 6% of the population. The urban population increased from 3. English has official status in the archipelago of San Andr. The specific number of spoken languages varies slightly since some authors consider as different languages what others consider to be varieties or dialects of the same language. Best estimates recorded 7.
Chibchan, Tucanoan, Bora–Witoto, Guajiboan, Arawakan, Cariban, Barbacoan, and Saliban language families. There are currently about 8. The populations of the major cities also include mestizos. Mestizocampesinos (people living in rural areas) also live in the Andean highlands where some Spanish conquerors mixed with the women of Amerindian chiefdoms.
TODAY COLOMBIA NEWS – Colombia news in English! TODAY COLOMBIA – When Victoria Sandino, a long- time fighter in the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), joined the guerrilla organisation’s peace talks with her country’s government in 2. It’s called “insurgent feminism”, and, while still nascent, this philosophy.